Bonus Round: Advanced Web Audio

May 23, 2011

Hopefully this semester has provided a good foundation for understanding the technicalities of music on the web. For those wanting to LEVEL UP, I’ve included some bonus round easter eggs below… an exploration of the more advanced options available for audio on the web.

Firstly, it’s worth noting that browsers will increasingly be using HTML 5 from here on, and with this will come easier embedding possibilities and via a more developer friendly Javascript API – increasingly innovative experiences with sound online. Here’s your old friend w3schools on the topic of HTML 5, and here’s a recently celebrated example of pushing it’s capacity: (and do read the section about the technology enabling it).

As part of gathering relevant web audio bookmarks for the course (which I’ve been storing here: ), I wrote to a few musician and audio production friends, and Dan MacKinlay provided the unexpectedly detailed reply below, which I’ve added a few links to for clarity. Well worth a read for those interested in the more technical capabilities online for audio.

Add generous Dan on soundcloud!

Web audio? You mean a bald, beginnerish summary? How practical do you need it to be? For basic encoding stuff there’s the good old William Haun PowerPoinT. For the specialist, there is user interface design using javascript audio events. Quite aside from the Heath Robinson contraption flavour of such Flash solutions (and HTML5 audio is of course itself fragile and limited), the main problem with these things is that sonifying your average website is a joke.

So I divine that perhaps you are looking for something a little more cutting edge? Good old chrism’s attempt to port puredata to the web – aka WebPd. Or the older Lily project to turn firefox into a generative media plaything…?

Or my own modest bookmarks:

For the extra fun, I reckon we should plumb nearly-web audio. I hereby be possibly off topic.

Did you know the RJDJ app supports network connections?I think my next RjDJ app will be based around that idea. Or processing.js – did you know that it does some amazing audio stuff? (esp. in firefox)  (David Humprey, linked there, is optimistic about audio web stuff)

sc140 is another near-web contender.

Or, let us suck up the zeitgeist and think of augmented reality sound design. Isn’t AR last season’s hottest flavour? (Cringing at memory of punters pronouncing it Arrr, and me not being sure if it was talk-like-an-internet–pirate day or if they were just constantly amazed)

The oldest and awesomest instance of this i know is audionomad, where composers made the landscape into a a weird compositional acoustic hallucination. I heard Nigel Helyer’s composition from a chartered boat with multichannel sound system bolten on for full-spatialization goodness. The Sydney harbour bridge was a traversed by invisible roller coasters, Sydney Cove resounded with echoing screams of the drowning victims of the Greycliffe disaster, and as we passed the couple posing for their wedding photos on picturesque Dawes point, a dry voice read extracts from an early colonist’s diary, recounting  that the site was where the scurvy riddled- bodies of the dead and dying convicts where dumped from the vessels like sacks of wheat. Historicity FTW.

All you’d want is to make those annotations be collaborative and it would be webalicious.

Of course, a multichannel ferry is overkill in this day and age. everything’s made of smartphones, and the hallucinations are a little more solipsistic than a boozy ferry-ride.. Layar, for example, supports audio.

For what its worth, I’m not really interested in the web as a site for audio, as that is not what I use it for. rather, I’m interested in the web for audio control. Nothing supports nested, dynamic controls like a browser does, not even the ex-Jazzmutant-lemur. It’s still a bit more tedious than it needs to be because OpenSoundControl is a zany binary format that prefers UDP and browsers prefer delicious JSON-over-TCP. Which, as an ex web guy, I argue is excessively tight coupling on OSC’s part owing to a confusion of the hierarchy of the protocol stack. But that is a nitpick for another day.

Any of that brain dump what you’re after? What DO you mean by “web” anyhow?



Week 12: It’s A Wrap!

May 23, 2011

Thanks to everyone for engaging this semester – look forward to seeing your projects.

Submission Details ( DUE BY 5pm, Friday June 3rd ( end of week 13))

Send in an email with –

– Full name and student number
– 1 x URL for your Final Project
– 1 x URL for your blog
– 1 x URL for your delicious account

See the bottom of the course guide for RMIT policy on copyright, plagiarism, late submissions, penalties etc.


Technical checklist for your blog (also includes useful tips about using links effectively within your writing).

Questions to ask about your blog posts?

Could this post have been written on a phone by a 13 year old on a tram?
( No? Great, move to the next question.. )

What useful points are you making, or what ideas are you exploring, that might be of use to anyone in the course, or in the music industry, or in general?

Are you merely describing something (‘This exists. Here is a link’), or adding any useful analysis, any critique relevant to the course? ((‘This link intrigues for these reasons. As mentioned elsewhere (link), there are many problems with … and site X solves this nicely in these ways. It also brings new problems though (other links) and I think…. etc )). Writing doesn’t have to be academically formal within a blog post, but effective writing still requires some attempt to provide insight / meaning / value to the reader. What value does your post provide?

Have you added any *relevant* links, supporting any of the points made? Have you explained why and how the link is relevant or of interest?

If presenting any interesting examples of media or artists, companies etc – have you explained what opportunities and/or challenges are represented by these examples, or represented by the way they have been developed, produced or distributed?

In general – have you asked yourself – what are the implications ( or opportunities / challenges / risks ) of the topic you are writing about –  for a musician’s research / collaboration / production / feedback / distribution? What are any implications for the music industry as a whole?

Ideas for blog posts?

Have you written any posts about ideas brought up by other students on their blogs?

If so, have you included specific links to their original posts, and outlined any meaningful points / addition thoughts that you get from reading them?

As well as outlining those responses, have you included any relevant research or examples that back up your points? (( The goal here, is to provide interesting feedback, and to explore their points (or some aspect of them) in more detail and nuance.))

Have you written meaningfully about any of the networks you are involved with? Expand your knowledge about some aspect of Soundcloud, Vimeo or Flickr, and explore it in fine detail. Succinctly describe, provide example links, and move quickly to the juicy bits – what does this mean? What are the implications? What insight does this offer us about the music industry today and tomorrow?

Have you been involved in any interesting interactions within your wider online networks? Describe and document these, and tease out the implications.

What gaps exist in your online knowledge? Do a last burst of research, dive in and explore, document your findings and explain their significance in the online ecosystem. What unique opportunities does this provide?


“The kind of motion picture I am interested in will be like creating the modern LP record. It will be mixed into ways of thinking rather than cut linearly” – FRANCIS FORD COPPOLA ( Academy award winning director of Godfather, Apocalypse Now etc ). And now we have the likes of starwarsuncut and sample based live cinema.

What are your speculations about the future of music? What are some examples or stepping stones towards that?


What inspires you outside the music industry? Does it provide any interesting lessons, parallels or differences to the music industry that could be fruitfully written about?

Week 11: Critical Thinking About Social Media

May 16, 2011

Beyond describing and documenting a range of tools and techniques, this week we want to explore – what are the implications do our new technologies, communication techniques and emergent social habits? What are the implications of social media? For you? Your music related career? The music industry as a whole? For wider society?

To warm up, we’re going to look at a couple of videos featuring Sherry Turkle. The first discusses the relationship between technology and identity, and the more recent video has her discussing limitations to hyperconnectivity… albeit on the Colbert Report, laugh track included.

And 3 related tasks this week via Ed.

Within those tasks, a challenge to think about what happens to our complex identities, when we are online. What do these words mean for us in an online context: Authenticity? Privacy? Anonymity? Authentication? Fake identities? Stolen identities? Trust? Online reputations? Social capital? Although set in 2005, this conference presentation serves as a useful overview to some of the issues surrounding online identity.

Week 10 – Podcasting

May 9, 2011

What is a Podcast? Despite the implication that it must involve an iPod, this is not the case, and although Apple’s iTunes software is a popular destination for many podcasts ( iTunes makes subscribing to Podcasts easy for listeners, so even though it requires extra steps from producers to submit, most prefer to do so), iTunes is not necessary for a podcast either. This basic definition from wikipedia is a useful starting point:

“A podcast is a digital audio or video file that is episodic; downloadable; program-driven, mainly with a host and/or theme; and convenient, usually via an automated feed with computer software.”

– Wikipedia via Academics at the Community, Journalism & Communication Research group at the University of Texas at Austin.

And this weeks reading ( as discussed by radioblaster and nikkichook), expands on that definition, outlining some of the technical foundations that make it possible, and some of the social uses that spring from this.

Some Example Podcasts?

Technopodcast – note their automated availability via itunes, soundcloud, mixcloudtwitter and facebook. – daily 3 minute dose of net culture as a video. ( Which dovetails podcasting with ‘video blogging‘ )
Radiolab ( WNYC ) – An existing radio show expanding it’s reach.

ABC Australia’s Podcast collection, Australian Government Podcasts, Aussie Geek Podcast, Skepticzone (Australian based show, charges per episode)

Why Make A Podcast?

Where is your potential audience? How can you remove barriers to them finding out about your work? How can you adapt your own workflow to take advantage of automated systems?  What are the strengths and weaknesses of subscription based media / feed based media / push (notification) based media?

How To Make A Podcast


a) Using built-in services such as podomatic or podbean

b) Rolling your own, with all the added customisation ( and potential monetisation ) benefits

Wikihow’s guide to making a podcast is probably the simplest set of instructions available online, boiling the process down to:

– deciding on what type of material you will produce (research + planning )
– recording, producing
– Adding metadata – ‘Tag it, give it ID information (Artist, Album) and give it album art.’
– Creating an RSS Podcast Feed (using a blog and the Feedburner service)
– Uploading your .mp3 ( to any site or server that will generate a media file URL that ends with .mp3 )
– Make a blog post, and including a direct link to the .mp3 file ( This will enable Podcast software to auto-download it for any subscribers)
– Add a podcast button and link for people to subscribe to your show

More details are included in the Wikihow guide, but those are the basic steps. Another guide?

c) Adding your podcast to iTunes?

Apple’s guide to making an itunes friendly podcast ( See also Understanding the (difference between the) iTunes Client and the iTunes store)

Monetising your podcast

Generating a Podcast from Soundcloud
Soundcloud wrote in January 2011, that they will ‘soon’ be offering podcasting abilities from within Soundcloud:

“We’ll soon be able to offer RSS feed capability for your tracks and will be rolling this out slowly with selected users. If you’d like to apply to be included in this program and possibly have the chance to become a featured podcaster, just fill in the form below… SIGN UP FOR BETA ACCOUNT! Check out our SoundCloud for Podcasts 101 and Podcasting 101 for further details on the features and technical side of podcasting.”

You can see this being rolled out already with some Soundcloud artist pages that have an RSS icon, such as Create Digital Music ( a podcast to accompany their website ) ,whose Soundcloud page has this RSS address. In the meantime, this useful script at Cloudflipper, makes it easy to generate podcasts from Soundcloud artists, and subscribe to these with say Google reader, or any dedicated podcast software. Examples?

These two fine Melbourne artists : Faux Pas on SoundcloudLewis Cancut on Soundcloud

Group Research Tasks: (To be done in class today, in separate groups) 
1. Popular software (mac and PC) for subscribing and listening to Podcasts? List some of the key distinguishing features. Make a recommendation for best mac and PC software.

2. Research cost for:
– buying your own domain name
– buying your own server space
– having your own custom email address ( eg )

3. Find examples of podcasts that have large audiences, and find examples of podcasters who appear to be making some form of income from podcasting.

Creative Task: (To be done in class today)
– Brainstorm a podcast that could take advantage of remote collaborations ( eg something as involved as co-editing, co-curating, remixing, or something as casual as using specific twitter hashtags ),
– Think of a suitable name for your podcast, and a suitable domain name.
– Write a brief blurb describing your podcast.
– Describe some ideas about how you might use social media for research, collaboration, production and promotion of your podcast.
– Outline potential roles for delegating between participants.
– Develop a simple budget that would show the minimum costs needed.
– Publish as a blog post.

Individual Research Task :
Find a good podcast worth sharing with your peers. Write a brief blog post that includes a link, summarises the podcast and describes what makes it successful. When publishing your blog post, use a subject line like this:  “Podcast: Name of chosen podcast”. This should deliver us a large range of podcasts from the group as a whole.

Time Lapse and Audiovisual Relationships

May 2, 2011

Photosounder wall by Joe Fuchsen is a nice example of both time lapse, and the relationship between sound and image. Joe used the program Photosounder to analyse his image and produce related sound, with higher pitches happening when sticking pieces of paper up higher on the wall. Joe has also made a great visual surrounding for that video on one of his HTML project pages.

Some software in a related vein worth a look: Metasynth, and some interesting Max for Live patches for audiovisual uses are being developed by Melbourne musician and artist Zeal – see

Soundscapes and HTML

May 2, 2011

A few tips on creating the Audio Embedding Code for your Soundscape:

– Create an audio folder on your server with fugu / fetch etc, and upload your mp3 into it, note URL of audio.
– Test this in the browser : eg If correct, this should play your sound.

– Insert audio URL into PageOt to generate code, (note – make height=0, so you get a controller without a blank video window) Insert this code into a HTML page made in PageSpinner, include links for any sourced material.) Width can be adjusted to make the controller suit the width of page design elements. Clicking controller on/off will have it display or not, and loop and volume allow further controls. Press ‘code and options’, paste this into a HTML page, upload – and bingo!

[ Or try this web based option for generating embedding CODE. ]

What to do with your soundscapes?
Aside from publishing within your final project – where else can you publish them, and what else can you publish them with? ( Eg text, images, links to your project / music / blog etc ) And what are useful tags to use when publishing them?

Soundcloud is obviously an option, but there are also several dedicated soundscape related websites:
eg Freesound (which hosts creative commons samples),, and

Week 9: Embedding Time-Based Media Files

May 2, 2011

This week: time-based media and HTML. We’ll be covering everything needed for the video and sound part of your final assignment – Time Lapse Video techniques, sound and video compression – and below, how to publish these files within your webpages.

There are 3 main ways to display media files within a web page.

Method 1: Direct linking to a media file.

1. Upload your media file to a server. Noting the location on the server, figure out the URL for this file.
2. Enter the full URL in a browser. If pointed to the address of a media file stored online, a web browser will play back the file in the centre of a blank web page. eg the link below:

That same URL can be used with hyper-linked text (eg my time lapse video file ), to take viewers to a separate page with the media file.

Method 2: Using Files Hosted at Online Services

Most media hosting services such as Youtube, Vimeo and Soundcloud etc will give you embedding code for a file, which can then be placed within the body of your HTML page. While this allows positioning of the media file (instead of having it centred in an empty page), it still limits control over playback of the media file, and limits the look of the media player.

Method 3: DIY Embedding Codes

The most flexible, customisable option for embedding media files – is only a couple of steps more difficult than the other 2 options above, but through learning this method, we gain the capacity to play sounds in the background (by setting the values of the player visibility), add the ability to loop playback, design the look of the media player, and several other functions.

What Code Do We Need for Embedding Media Files?
W3Schools outlines the structure and syntax of HTML, and explains the relevance of elements within that structure. For embedding time-based media files, we are interested in the Object Element which ‘supports many different media types, like Picture, Sounds, Videos and other multimedia Objects’.

Below is a HTML page with a table in it, and the code for a video file embedded within that table. This allows control of where the video player is located on the page. Use the browser menu to view the source code for the page.

Having viewed the code, note there are two options for generating the relevant codes for embedding time-based media files within webpages.
1. PageOT is free software ( mac + PC ), that “an immediate access to the complex features of QuickTime plug-ins, and gives you the power to create interactive playlists and presentations.” (If installing PAGEOT in the mac lab, install into a folder on the desktop, as you don’t have permission to install into the applications folder)

2. A web based generator of embedding CODE for embedding ]

For both processes, you will need to enter the URL of your media file, choose various settings, then collect the relevant code outputted, and then place this within your HTML page.

And some context for the near future of web publishing – HTML 5audio and video:
“HTML5 is not yet an official standard, and no browsers have full HTML5 support. But all major browsers continue to add new HTML5 features to their latest versions.”

Time-Lapse Video Instructions

May 2, 2011

Whether it is cinema, TV or video, what we perceive as a moving image is actually the result of seeing a number of still images per second. 12 frames per second is the minimum frame rate our eyes accept as ‘smooth’ motion. Once the rate drops below that, we perceive motion as jagged and stop/start.

Film = 24 frames per second, 24 images
Analogue Television comes in two varieties, PAL (used by most countries, =25 frames per second) and NTSC (used by the U.S. and Japan, =30 frames per second).
Video cameras often have options for recording 24 or 25 or 30 frames a second, to suit the respective regions.
Computer games, graphics cards and monitors can be optimised for displaying 60 frames per second to suit high speed gaming requirements.
( Side note: James Cameron recently suggested cinema should move to 48 or 60 frames per second, to achieve smoother high speed camera motion and detail.)

Relevance? Time lapse video.
If we record a video with a video camera in Australia (which uses PAL), we are capturing 25 still images every second – in real-time / as they happen. When those images are played back at 25 times per second, they show movement as natural. This means video can be created without video cameras, by compiling and sequencing images together. The images can be photographs – but they could also be illustrations, screenshots, or any combination of the above.

A time lapse video – simply means increasing the amount of time that has lapsed between the capture of each image. If we capture 25 images within 10 seconds instead of 1 second, playing this back (at 25 frames per second) will give the illusion of 10 x faster speed.

How To Make A Time Lapse Video
There are plenty of tutorials for creating time lapses (and a dedicated Time Lapse group at vimeo), and the methods boil down to this:

1. Capture images
2. Arrange images into a sequence that can be played back
3. Export movie.

1. Capturing images can be done with any camera – just be aware of the desired image dimensions for the final video. A video of 640×480 pixels is probably fine for our needs, so the camera will need to photograph at this size or larger. If it is capturing at a much larger size, this can allow for panning motions, but it’ll also be important to ensure the end video has been reduced to a size appropriate for the web.

2. Arranging Images. This can be done by importing all of your images into Final Cut Pro and then arranging them on the timeline. An even easier method involves Quicktime Pro – have all of your images ready in a single folder, then choose File > Open Image Sequence. Quicktime Pro will ask you what frame rate you wish to import the images as. Select the frame rate, and your movie will then be created and open up for you. The Quicktime process is simple and quick, so try experimenting with different frame rates to see which gives you the best time lapse / stop motion / smooth motion effect relevant to your video. Bringing this completed movie into Final Cut Pro can then allow easy adjustment of colours, framing, or the addition of text etc.

3. Exporting your movie. These guidelines for Vimeo give a good summary of the relevant parameters to consider when exporting from Quicktime or Final Cut Pro.

Quicktime Tips
Quicktime has a few useful audio editing, composition and exporting functions, for making quick adjustments to your newly created timelapse.

The in/out markers ( press i or o while a movie plays ) underneath the timeline can be used for quick and easy cutting, pasting ( command + x / command + c / command + v ), or deleting of sections. ‘command + n’ will make a new quicktime document you can paste sounds into. Sounds can also be layered to play simultaneously, by using quicktimes ‘add to movie’ function, found under the ‘edit’ drop down menu. Selecting ‘add to movie and scale’ will re-adjust the pasted item’s length of time to match the time of where it is being pasted – as set out by the in and out markers. This can be useful for matching times, or speeding / slowing / changing pitch of sounds.

Under the QT file menu choosing ‘view’ then ‘play selection only (command + T) makes quicktime play only the section within the markers – which is useful for fine tuning an edit, and choosing ‘view’ then loop (command + L) makes the clip play in a continuous loop – both of these in combination can be useful for refining an edit.

Sound + Time?
What is the musical equivalent of a time lapse video? Or more broadly – how might you creatively approach time with sound recording or composition?

Week 8 Remixing and Copyright

April 18, 2011

The essays are due on May 4th, so we’re going to start this week with 2 x Essay related tasks, via Ed:

In-class task: in groups of two or three, brainstorm some ideas for the essay. Think about the different technologies that can be focused on, the different practices that can be discussed, the impacts these have had on the music industry, any recent controversies over copyright and intellectual property, etc.

In-class task: write a quick blog post which outlines the structure of your essay, mentioning any supporting evidence.


Ed has also compiled a list of useful resources and theories related to the topics of remix, copyright and authorship, that we’ll be exploring this week. Please read in it’s entirety, taking special note of basic definitions you need to understand, useful reference sites for accessing at times of need, and the RMIT policy for copyright issues online (including your blog) – how well you read, and adhere to this, will affect your assessment.

Remixing brings a couple of interesting questions to the table, one involving law and the other, artistic integrity.

The law argues if you do not have the right to copy a portion of music, no use of this music is authorised without permission (and often payment) to the original copyright holder. In practical terms, legal action tends to be threatened or enforced only when money is involved ( ie songs or song portions used in some commercial context, earning payments). This means a chart topping act is much more likely to be sued than a small band without any releases or a significant bank account. Garage productions aside however, if gainfully employed by a media organisation, if producing a soundtrack for a film being submitted to a film festival, or if publishing material online within a hosted environment ( eg youtube), then the doors are open for legal threats – and you need to be aware of your legal responsibilities. Ed’s post covers that ground well.

Issues of Authorship and artistic integrity?

“Music has always been a craft of borrowing. In traditional, or folk, music, melodies and lyrics were handed down from generation to generation. At every stage, musicians would change the tune or substitute words at will, adapting songs to their own situations.”

The above quote is from the liner notes of the Illegal Audio Art compilation CD (Offered as a free download as part of,  a website created for an exhibition ‘Freedom of Expression in the Corporate Age’, highlighting several key controversial copyright cases of recent decades. Also relevant, with a very similar URL, – home to a variety of sample based music, including Girl Talk.)

Cultural arguments about remixing, as mentioned above, and as touched on in this week’s reading, suggest that existing art and media are raw materials for an artist to create from. What is important, from such a perspective – is not whether you have sampled, but what you are doing with it. Have you added value to an existing work, or are you merely riding on the easy recognition of a very familiar sample? Also of more interest within the cultural realm, are the changing notions of authorship that remixing brings to attention. What does remixing, and newer technologies which facilitate remixing, mean culturally? See Roland Barthes’ notion of the ‘death of the author’, or Walter Benjamin’s The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction as key theoretical reference points.

Trying to find a middle ground between legal and cultural arguments, lead Lawrence Lessig to found Creative Commons, and he has several free (and very influential) books available at his site for download, which flesh out his arguments in great detail, and are potentially useful for your essay. See also Creative Commons Australia.

Assorted Remix And Copyright Links:

Copyright related controversy about Soundcloud, which has developed it’s popularity on the backbone of hosting DJ mixes. Further discussion by Wayne + Wax, citing remixes of James Blake as a case study. – assorted writings about remixing.

Soundscape remixing? RJDJ – interactive applications for smart phones, that incorporate and remix any sounds from the microphone in real-time, and (sometimes musical..) create ‘sonic experiences’. RJDJ is built using Pure Data, and the team created a special version for the movie Inception, that ‘transforms the world around you into a dreamworld. It uses augmented sound to induce dreams through the headset of your iPhone and iPod Touch. It will change your perception of reality.’ – a collection of separated studio tracks for easy remixing. Found via cory_arcangel.

Also on the copyright front – thanks to for drawing attention to the article ‘IIA Fastracks Industry Copyright Code – an ISP lead intiative to limit the liability of ISP’s for copyright infringements made by users. “”Market failure remains a core contributor to the infringement problem. If users have access to more and better content, when, where and in the form they choose to consume it, and at a realistic price, we’re quite confident the motivation for infringement will decline”.

Below, the Kopimi logo, ( ‘copy-me’), which advocates use if ‘you want to be copied‘, a reflection of the idea that ‘only obscurity is worse for a creative than piracy‘.

Reflections on Group Blog Posts

April 11, 2011

There’s pretty varied evidence of research in the group blog posts.. different levels of engagement with the course, which in turn will gain different levels of participation marks. Below are a few recent posts of interest:

Morganblack disagrees with an aspect of the McLeod reading for week 7, arguing “a mash-up should not have to rely on people recognising the original songs.” We’ll be discussing that more in our focus on Remix in week 8.

Radioblaster shared some insights (and example code to view) into designing a page with a table on it using CSS, and noted a recent brush with ‘twitter fame‘. Did anyone make it to the demonstration of lighting used by Usher at the Rod Laver Arena? (mentioned earlier by Radioblaster)?

The Patientau prefers Tumblr to WordPress (“WordPress is the worst”), citing Tumblr’s easier customisation options and the payment required to edit CSS on the hosted version we are using. (Note: A free and fully customisable WordPress version is also available for people who wish to host it themselves.) What do other users of both Tumblr + WordPress feel? What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of each in relation to the music industry? Why do you think we have chosen to use wordpress?

Goodfellow has figured out a time lapse idea, and links to some examples, while Glapeshh demonstrates a time lapse ‘work in progress’: emo-style capsicum.

In other project related Starcky writes about the Coburg Trombone monster, and Scott wonders about sampling ‘audio tactile detectors‘ ( aka the buttons pressed by pedestrians at traffic lights).